Cat 994K Large Wheel Loader

Large Wheel Loaders

About the Cat 994K Large Wheel Loader


Cat Large Wheel Loaders are designed with durability built in, ensuring maximum availability through multiple life cycles. With optimized performance and simplified serviceability, our machines allow you to move more material efficiently and safely at a lower cost per ton.<br>Introduced in 1990, the 994 has become the top customer choice in its size class for over 25 years. Focused on helping our customers succeed, we have continued to build upon each new series' legacy of reliability, safety, operator comfort, serviceability and sustainability.<br>All images included in this Specalog show a U.S. EPA Tier 1/EU Stage I Equivalent configuration. It's important to note that the Tier 4 Final/EU Stage V Equivalent will have some physical differences, including the presence of a DEF tank.


Net Power 1297 kW
Engine Model Cat® 3516E
Bore 170 mm
Stroke 215 mm
Displacement 78.1 l
Rated Speed 1,600 rpm
Emissions U.S. EPA Tier 4 Final/EU Stage IV* or U.S. EPA Tier 1/EU Stage I Equivalent
Gross Power - ISO 14396 1377 kW
Gross Power - SAE J1995 1394 kW
Net Power - SAE J1349 - Standard Ambient 1297 kW
Peak Torque - 1,200 rpm - SAE J1995 11591 N·m
Torque Rise 39%
Net Power - SAE J1349 - High Ambient 1265 kW
Note (1) The power ratings apply when tested under the reference conditions for the specified standard.
Note (2) The net power advertised is the power available at the flywheel when the engine is equipped with fan, alternator, air cleaner, and muffler.
Note (3) The gross power advertised is with the fan at maximum speed.
Note (4) *Tier 4 Final/EU Stage IV configuration is ready to meet Stage V emission requirements once in effect.
Operating Specifications
Operating Weight 242605 kg
Bucket Capacity Range 19.1-24.5 m3 (25-32 yd3)
Rated Payload - High Lift 38.1 t
Rated Payload - Standard 40.8 t
Bucket Capacity Range - Coal 32.1-43.6 m3 (42-57 yd3)
Bucket Capacity Range - Iron Ore 17.2 m³
Bucket Capacity Range - Rock 19.1-24.5 m3 (25-32 yd3)
Transmission Type Cat Planetary Power Shift
Forward - 1 7.4 km/h
Forward - 2 12.9 km/h
Forward - 3 21.9 km/h
Reverse - 1 8.1 km/h
Reverse - 2 14.1 km/h
Reverse - 3 24 km/h
Direct Drive - Forward 1 Lock-up disables
Direct Drive - Forward 2 14 km/h
Direct Drive - Forward 3 24.5 km/h
Direct Drive - Reverse 1 Lock-up disables
Direct Drive - Reverse 2 15.5 km/h
Direct Drive - Reverse 3 27 km/h
Note Travel speeds based on 58/85-57 tires.
Hydraulic System - Lift/Tilt
Cylinders, Double Acting - Lift, Bore and Stroke 370 × 1713 mm (14.6 × 67.4 in)
Cylinders, Double Acting - Tilt, Bore and Stroke 310 × 1086 mm (12.2 × 42.8 in)
Lift/Tilt System - Circuit Positive Flow Control
Lift/Tilt System - Pump Variable Displacement Piston
Maximum Flow at 1,700 rpm Engine Speed 2047 l/min
Pilot System Open Loop and Pressure Reducing
Relief Valve Setting - Lift/Tilt 32500 kPa
Hydraulic Cycle Times
Raise 12.6 s
Dump 3.1 s
Lower Float Down 4.2 s
Rack Back 4.9 s
Total Hydraulic Cycle Time - Empty Bucket 23.5 s
Complete System Fill
Cooling System 520 l
Differential - Final Drives - Front 833 l
Differential - Final Drives - Rear 757 l
Engine Crankcase 288 l
Fuel Tank - Standard 3445 l
Fuel Tank - With 24 hr Attachment 5678 l
Hydraulic Tank - Implement and Hydraulic Fan 1022 l
Hydraulic Tank - Steering and Braking 379 l
Transmission 416 l
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) (Tier 4 Final/Stage IV) 519 l
Note *Not available on Tier 4 Final machines. Not available in all regions.
Oil Renewal System (ORS)* 75.7 l
Bucket Capacities 19.1-24.5 m3 (25-32 yd3)
Front Fixed
Rear Trunnion
Oscillation Angle
Brakes ISO 3450:2011
Sound Performance - Standard
Machine Sound Level (ISO 6395:2008) 119 dB(A)
Operator Sound Level (ISO 6396:2008) - Tier 1/EU Stage I Equivalent 72 dB(A)
Operator Sound Level (ISO 6396:2008) - Tier 4 Final/EU Stage IV* 72 dB(A)
Note *EU Stage V ready.
Sound Performance The measurement was conducted at 70 percent of the maximum engine cooling fan speed. Hearing protection may be needed when the machine is operated with a cab that is not properly maintained or when the doors or windows are open for extended periods or in
Hydraulic System - Steering
Maximum Flow at 1,700 rpm Engine Speed 980 l/min
Relief Valve Setting - Steering 31000 kPa
Steering System - Circuit Pilot, Load Sensing
Steering System - Pump Piston, Variable Displacement
Total Steering Angle 80 degrees
Steering Cycle Times - High Idle 4.3 s
Steering Cycle Times - Low Idle 7.6 s
Cooling System
Ambient Capability Hydraulically Driven Demand Fan - High (Tier 1 equivalent) 55 °C
Ambient Capability Hydraulically Driven Demand Fan - High (Tier 4 Final) 53 °C
Ambient Capability Hydraulically Driven Demand Fan - Standard 43 °C
Dimensions - High Lift - Approximate
B-Pin Height - Maximum Lift 9647 mm
Clearance at Maximum Lift 7095 mm
Dump Angle at Maximum Lift –50.0 degrees
Front Axle Centerline to Bucket Tip 7097 mm
Ground to Bumper Clearance 1355 mm
Ground to Center of Axles 1820 mm
Ground to Lower Hitch Clearance 898 mm
Ground to Top of Exhaust Stacks 7067 mm
Ground to Top of Hood 5682 mm
Ground to Top of ROPS 7118.5 mm
Maximum Overall Height - Bucket Raised 12545 mm
Maximum Overall Length 20102 mm
Note Assumes 22.9 m3 (30 yd3) bucket for standard lift, and 21.4 m3 (28 yd3) bucket for high lift, fitted with Cat Advansys™ heavy duty tips. Assumes tire size 58/85-57.
Rack Angle at Maximum Lift 59.4 degrees
Rack Back Angle - Carry 53.7 degrees
Rack Back Angle - Ground Level 45.0 degrees
Reach - Maximum Lift 2688 mm
Rear Axle - Centerline to Bumper 6205 mm
Tread Width 4300 mm
Wheel Base 6800 mm
Width - Over Tires - With Bulge 5760 mm
Dimensions - Standard Lift - Approximate
B-Pin Height - Maximum Lift 8790 mm
Clearance at Maximum Lift 6167 mm
Dump Angle at Maximum Lift –50.0 degrees
Front Axle Centerline to Bucket Tip 6503 mm
Ground to Bumper Clearance 1355 mm
Ground to Center of Axles 1820 mm
Ground to Lower Hitch Clearance 898 mm
Ground to Top of Exhaust Stacks 7067 mm
Ground to Top of Hood 5682 mm
Ground to Top of ROPS 7118.5 mm
Maximum Overall Height - Bucket Raised 11771 mm
Maximum Overall Length 19508 mm
Note Assumes 22.9 m3 (30 yd3) bucket for standard lift, and 21.4 m3 (28 yd3) bucket for high lift, fitted with Cat Advansys™ heavy duty tips. Assumes tire size 58/85-57.
Rack Angle at Maximum Lift 59.5 degrees
Rack Back Angle - Carry 47.7 degrees
Rack Back Angle - Ground Level 39.7 degrees
Reach - Maximum Lift 2821 mm
Rear Axle - Centerline to Bumper 6205 mm
Tread Width 4300 mm
Wheel Base 6800 mm
Width - Over Tires - With Bulge 5758 mm
Sound Performance - Suppression
Machine Sound Level (ISO 6395:2008) 117 dB(A)
Note *EU Stage V ready.
Operator Sound Level (ISO 6396:2008) - Tier 1/EU Stage I Equivalent 71 dB(A)
Operator Sound Level (ISO 6396:2008) - Tier 4 Final/EU Stage IV* 71 dB(A)
Sound Performance The measurement was conducted at 70 percent of the maximum engine cooling fan speed. Hearing protection may be needed when the machine is operated with a cab that is not properly maintained or when the doors or windows are open for extended periods or in



Robust Structures
Your bottom line is improved by highly durable structures that achieve multiple life cycles and withstand the toughest loading conditions.
  • Full box-section rear frame resists torsional shock and twisting forces to maximize life of mounted components.
  • Frames utilize castings in key areas to maximize frame durability and optimize efficiency.
  • Rear axle mounting to frame optimized to better disperse loads for increased structural integrity.
Lift Arms
Your key to maximum uptime and productivity is our field-proven lift arms.
  • Excellent visibility to the bucket edges and work area through a Z-bar design.
  • High load stresses are absorbed by the solid steel lift arms.
  • Enhanced strength in key pin areas through the use of one piece castings.
  • Stress relieved lift arms increase durability.
Front Linkage
To ensure long life and reliability, the linkage pin joints feature a greased pin design and standard automatic lubrication system.

Power Train

Impeller Clutch Torque Converter (ICTC) and Rimpull Control System (RCS)
Lower your cost per ton utilizing advanced ICTC and RCS for modulated rimpull.
  • Reduce tire slippage and wear by modulating rimpull from 100 to 25 percent while depressing left pedal. After 25 percent rimpull is achieved the left pedal applies the brake.
  • Reduce the potential for wheel slippage without reducing hydraulic efficiency with RCS.
  • Improve fuel efficiency in certain applications with our lock-up clutch torque converter providing direct drive.
Steering and Transmission Integrated Control System (STIC™)
Experience maximum responsiveness and control with STIC that combines directional selection, gear selection and steering into a single lever.
  • Simple side-to-side motion turns machine right or left, minimizing operator movements.
  • Easy to operate finger controlled gear selection.
  • Smoother, faster cycles and less operator fatigue through the use of low effort integrated controls.
Cat Planetary Powershift Transmission
Building your success begins with a best-in-class transmission designed specifically for mining applications.
  • Consistent, smooth shifting and efficiency through integrated electronic controls.
  • Long life and reliability through heat treated gears.
  • Three forward and three reverse speeds to match your application.
Cat 3516E Engine
Durability and reliability continues in the 994K with the proven 3500 Series engines. At the heart of the 994K is the new 3516E engine. Optimum performance is built in through the use of a 16-cylinder, four-stroke design.
  • On-demand performance through the use of turbochargers and aftercoolers.
  • High Torque Rise – 39% torque rise ensures high lugging forces during digging and acceleration in high rimpull conditions.
  • Extended engine life through a longer stroke and lower rpm ratings.
  • Quick engine response through the use of electronic controls.
Economy Mode
Enabling maximum productivity and efficiency, all day every day. The 994K systems work hard to save you fuel through advanced technologies. Utilizing On Demand Throttle, operators maintain normal operation with the left pedal and implements while the 994K manages the engine speed.
  • Provides similar control and feel to our traditional throttle lock feature.
  • Efficiency of manual throttle and the ergonomics of throttle lock.


Positive Flow Control Hydraulics
Increase efficiency through our Positive Flow Control (PFC) Hydraulic System. PFC has concurrent pump and valve control. By optimizing pump control, hydraulic oil flow is proportionate to implement lever movement.
  • Fast, productive cycles enabled by four electronically controlled, fully variable piston pumps.
  • Increased bucket feel and control.
  • Consistent performance and efficiency with lower system heat.
Electro Hydraulic Controls
Increase operator productivity with these implement features.
  • Operate comfortably through electronically controlled hydraulic cylinder stops.
  • Handle easy-to-use soft detent controls.
  • Conveniently set automatic implement kickouts from inside the cab.
  • Joystick or single axis levers now available.
Steering System
Confident loader operation starts with precise machine control enabled by the 994K's load sensing hydraulic steering system.
  • Efficient variable displacement piston pumps.
  • Achieve precise positioning for easy loading in tight areas with 40 degrees of steering articulation.
  • Enhance operator comfort with integrated steering and transmission control functions.
Filtration System
Benefit from extended performance and reliability of your hydraulic system with our advanced filtration system.
  • Lift/tilt case drain filters.
  • Lift/tilt high pressure screens.
  • Steering case drain filters.
  • Steering high pressure screens.
  • Hydraulic case drain filters.
  • Power train filters for transmission, torque converter, and pump drives.
  • Front and rear brake oil screens.
Cooling System
  • A standard demand fan to improve efficiency and cooling performance.
  • Optional high ambient package for hot climate conditions.
  • Optional fan control to enable proper cooling performance in cold weather.

Operator Station

Your operators can work more efficiently and stay comfortable with our customer-inspired cab features.
Deluxe Operator Seat
Enhance comfort and reduce operator fatigue with Cat Comfort Series III seat.
  • Available heated and ventilated seat featuring leather seat bolster surfaces.
  • High back design and extra thick, contoured cushions.
  • Air suspension system.
  • Easy-to-reach seat levers and controls for six way adjustments.
  • Seat-mounted implement pod and STIC steer that moves with the seat.
  • 76 mm (3 in) wide retractable seat belt.
  • Fold up STIC steer/armrest.
Trainer Seat
Conveniently train other operators in comfort with our standard training seat.
  • 76 mm (3 in) wide, retractable seat belt.
  • Fold-down design with molded drink tray and storage.
Your operator's productivity is enhanced with our clean, comfortable cab environment.
  • Experience reduced vibrations from viscous cab mounts and air seat suspension.
  • Maintain desired cab temperature with automatic temperature controls.
  • Pressurized cab with pressure indicator.
  • Low operator sound levels.
  • Available heated and ventilated seats featuring leather covered seat bolster and headrest.

Technology Solutions

Integrated electronics provide flexible levels of information to both the site and the operator. This integration creates a smart machine and more informed operator, maximizing the productivity of both.
Information Display
We have worked hard to help our customers and operators perform at their best through our newly upgraded touch screen information display.
  • Intuitive operation and easy navigation with our enhanced user interface.
  • Decrease service time by keeping operators informed about machine systems.
Vital Information Management System (VIMS™)
Connect directly to the machine for access to a wide range of sensor information and enhanced machine data.
  • Create productivity reports with payload and work cycle segmentation.
  • Identify operator training needs through productivity data.
  • Detailed data logging of machine parameters and diagnostic codes.
  • Track machine sensor information with trend analysis and histograms to monitor machine health.
Cat Production Measurement (CPM)
Cat Production Measurement brings payload weighing to the cab so operators can work more productively and deliver accurate loads with confidence. CPM brings advanced weighing modes which assist with payload accuracy and speed the loading cycle.

Cat MineStar System

Cat MineStar System is the industry's broadest suite of integrated mine operations and mobile equipment management technologies, configurable to suit your operation's needs. Its capability sets – Fleet, Terrain, Detect, Health and Command – contain a range of technologies that let you manage everything from fleet assignment and condition monitoring to remote and autonomous control. The 994K can take advantage of many of these advanced technologies, some of which are standard out of the factory.
Fleet provides comprehensive, real-time machine tracking, assignment and productivity management, giving you a comprehensive overview of all operations from anywhere in the world.
Terrain for Loading
Terrain with your 994K enables high-precision management of loading operations through the use of guidance technology. It increases 994K's productivity and provides you real-time feedback for improved efficiency.
Detect helps increase operator awareness, enhancing safety at your operation. It includes a range of capabilities designed to assist the operator with areas of limited visibility around fixed and mobile equipment.
Health delivers critical event-based machine condition and operating data for your entire fleet. It includes comprehensive equipment health and asset monitoring capabilities, with a wide range of diagnostic, analytic and reporting tools.


We are constantly improving our products in an effort to provide a safe work environment for the operator and those who work on your job site.
Machine Access
  • Wider stairs with 45 degree angles provide easy access for operators getting on and off the 994K.
  • Wide walkways with non-skid surfaces and integrated lock out/tag out points are designed into the service areas.
  • Windshield cleaning platforms provide safe and convenient access for the operator.
  • Maintain three points of contact at all times through ground level or platform accessible service areas.
  • Emergency egress ladder provides a third exit, if needed.
  • Cat Detect, which includes Cat Vision plus an optional object detection radar system, enhances operator awareness around the machine.
  • Standard LED lights provide excellent workspace visibility.
  • LED warning lights, programmable for site-specific signaling.
  • Six mirror system improves operator line of sight to the side and rear of the machine. Heated option also available.
  • Standard pull down window shade.
  • Higher cab position for improved visibility during truck loading operations.
Operator Environment
  • Viscous cab mounts and seat air suspension reduce vibrations from the machine to the operator.
  • Low interior sound levels.
  • Standard 76 mm (3 in) seat belt with minder.
  • Optional 4 point harness with minder.
  • Operator training seat with standard 76 mm (3 in) seat belt facilitates convenient new operator training.
Powered Access System
The Cat powered access system allows easier access to the primary stairs by improving ingress and egress to and from the rear platform.
  • Safe, ergonomic access system.
  • All operators have adequate space when using the wide stairway.
  • Operators maintain three-point contact when using full handrails on each side.
  • Raise and lower stairs from cab level or ground.


We help you succeed by ensuring your 994K has design features to increase uptime.
  • The standard, comprehensive filtration system maintains clean fluids to enable high component reliability.
  • Safe and convenient service with ground level or platform access and grouped service points.
  • Swing-out doors on both sides of the engine compartment provide easy access to important daily service checks.
  • Ecology drains for ease of service and prevention of spills.
  • Centralized remote pressure taps.
  • Reduce downtime with VIMS system notifications so your operators and technicians can resolve any problems before failure.
  • Powered fresh air filter extends cab filter life.
  • Optional lighting for main service compartments.

Customer Support

Superior Cat Dealer Support
A valued partner, your Cat dealer is available whenever you need them.
  • Preventive maintenance programs and guaranteed maintenance contracts.
  • Best-in-class parts availability.
  • Improve your efficiency with operator training.
  • Genuine Cat Remanufactured parts.


Environmental responsibility is designed and built into our 994K's features.
  • Increased fuel efficiency results in less fuel consumption and fewer emissions than mechanical drive counterparts.
  • Engine Idle Shutdown can help you save fuel by avoiding unnecessary idling.
  • Built for multiple lives, the Cat 994 is one of the most rebuilt products. To assist with maximizing machine life, Caterpillar provides a number of sustainable options such as our Reman and Certified Rebuild programs. In these programs, reused or remanufactured components can deliver cost savings of 40 to 70 percent, which lowers operating cost while reducing waste to help conserve natural resources.
  • Caterpillar offers retrofit packages to bring new features to older machines, maximizing your resource. When you go through the Cat Certified Rebuild program, these retrofit kits are part of the rebuild process.
  • Fluids are better controlled through use of Cat anti-drain filter housings and component ecology drains.

Buckets and Ground Engaging Tools

Increase Productivity and Fuel Efficiency
Performance Series Buckets are designed for superior performance in a variety of materials. They are engineered to dig into piles quickly and load efficiently. Fill factors are up to 115% so you can get your job done and move on to other tasks. Fast load cycles and fewer trips mean less wear and tear on your machine and keep you working.
The buckets below are part of the Performance Series line. They come in different capacities and widths to fit your loading and carrying needs.
Rock Buckets
Designed for use in bank or face loading of limestone and other unprocessed rock. Application also includes truck and hopper loading for a wide range of quarry materials. GET includes spade nose cutting edge with adapters, half arrow segments, bottom wear plates, boxed wings and side bar protectors.
Heavy Duty Rock Buckets
Designed for use in applications like face loading tightly compacted pit materials or handling materials of moderate abrasion and high impacts. GET are similar to the rock bucket with the additions of cutting edge shrouds and Mechanically Attached Wear Plate system (MAWPs) on wings and underneath the bucket. Base edge end protection, ski plates, additional side wear plates and an extra set of side bar protectors are also included.
Iron Ore Buckets
Designed for use in extremely aggressive applications like face loading. They are built for high abrasion and moderate impact. GET are the same as Heavy Duty Rock buckets, except smaller in bucket capacity to accommodate for the higher density.
Coal Buckets
Designed for use in applications with light density and non-abrasive materials. GET includes a straight base edge with adapters and half arrow segments.
Ground Engaging Tools
Protect expensive components. Reduce your operating costs. Get the most out of your machine's performance. Choose from a variety of performance-built GET like these to meet your application requirements.
  • CapSure™ Tip Option: Heavy Duty Tip
  • CapSure Tip Option: Heavy Abrasion Tip
  • CapSure Tip Option: Coal Tip
  • CapSure Tip Option: Heavy Penetration Tip
  • Edge Protection Option: CapSure Shrouds
  • Edge Protection Option: Half Arrow Segment
  • CapSure Sidebar Protector
  • MAWPs – on Side and Bottom
  • Base End Edge Protector
  • Adapter Top Cover
Please check out our Parts Catalog for more GET options.
CapSure™ Retention Technology
Simplify GET component replacement with hammerless CapSure retention for fast, easy and safe installation. CapSure tips, shrouds and sidebar protectors are easily locked and unlocked with a 180 degree turn of a 3∕4 inch ratchet.

System Match Efficiency

Application Match
The standard 994K is sized to load the 136 tonnes (150 ton) 785 in four passes. The 994K standard lift loads the 177 tonnes (195 ton) 789 in five passes, and loads the 227 tonnes (240 ton) 793 in six passes.
Efficient Combination
For full truck payloads with minimum loading time, an efficient loading/hauling system starts with a perfect match. Cat wheel loaders are matched with Cat mining trucks to maximize volume of material moved at the lowest operating cost per ton.
Bucket Selection
Selection of the right bucket depends on penetration requirements, material densities, abrasion, and the loading target. Bucket sizes are matched to truck bed capacities and material densities for optimum loading efficiency and greater productivity.

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